Zipper Manual

This is the manual for "zipper", a program for combining range images into a polygonal mesh. Zipper was specifically created to more fully use range images acquired from a Cyberware range scanner. With appropriate file conversion, however, there is nothing preventing the use of zipper with range images taken with other scanners.

The research results from the "zipper" program are described in the following article:

Zippered Polygon Meshes from Range Images
Greg Turk and Marc Levoy
Proceedings of SIGGRAPH '94
Pages 311-318

Reading the above article will help your understanding of this manual.



The main drawback of using range images to capture a model is that almost no object is simple enough that a single range image will see the object's entire surface. If you are taking a linear range image of an object, the range data will only capture one side of an object. If you are using a rotational scan, the top of the object will be poorly sampled. For objects that have holes or large protrusions, one part of the object will very often obscure another part (self-occlusion). For this reason, we want to take several scans of an object, align them with one another, and then combine them to give a single surface. "Zipper" was written to perform the task of alignment and assembly.

Zipper was written for running on an SGI workstation, and it uses the GL graphics library to display objects. It uses the Tk widget toolkit for buttons and the like. It uses the Tcl command interpreter as a text front-end to interpret user commands. Tk and Tcl are both written by John Ousterhout at UC Berkeley, and is freely distributed from a number of FTP sites.

Starting the Program

Zipper can be invoked just by executing the file with no command line arguments:


This will bring up three windows:

1) Object Window (drawn objects, initially black)
2) Button Window (many buttons)
3) Selection Window (object/light/world selection)

In addition, you will see a prompt in the window from which you invoked zipper:

zipper> The normal way to use zipper is to type commands at this prompt and to click on buttons in the Button Window and the Selection Window.

Zipper can also be invoked with a configuration file. By default, configuration files end in ".conf". A configuration file can actually contain any number of commands to the zipper program, although they usually just contain viewing information and commands to load a number of range images and to place them in particular positions in 3-D. A configuration file is read in at the start of execution like so:

zipper -c <configuration-file-name> There is one other flag that can be provided on program start-up, and that is the no-graphics flag. This flag says that almost nothing will be drawn in the Object Window. This is useful if you are running zipper on a remote machine (presumably with more memory or processors than your local machine) and you don't want it to draw objects at a very slow speed. The no-graphics flag is "-g": zipper -g The zipper program can be terminated in several ways: 1) Type "quit" at the prompt, 2) type Control-D at the prompt, or 3) press while the cursor is in any of the graphics windows.

A Simple Example

Probably the easiest way to learn to use zipper is to go through a simple example. Let us assume that you took two linear (translational) range images of an object, one from head-on and another from the side (90 degrees from the first). Say these files are called "obj000.ply" and "obj090.ply", and they are both in the PLY range file format.

After invoking zipper, we can read in the two files by typing these commands at the prompt:

bmesh obj000 bmesh obj090 90 The first of these commands reads in the "obj000.ply" file, and sets the position of that object to the identity transformation (no position specified). The second command reads in "obj090.ply" and says that this object is to be turned 90 degrees around the y-axis. Both objects are displayed in the Object Window, the first one in white and the second one in red. Say that the two scans are slightly mis-aligned, even though we turned the second scan at 90 degrees. We type the following two lines: anchor obj000 align obj090 The first command says that we wish to align other scans to obj000. The second command invokes the alignment proceedure on obj090, and runs several alignment iterations to try bringing it into alignment with obj000. If this did not bring it into full alignment, we can re-type the "align obj090" command. Alternately, we can just type "!!", which says re-execute the last text command given. Each invocation of the alignment process prints out a set of about 10 numbers. These values are a rough measure of how close together the two scans are that are being aligned. When these numbers stop changing significantly, the scans are aligned. (This decision about when alignment is finished is obviously a task that should eventually be automated. Future work!) Once we are visually satisfied with the alignment, we are ready to merge the two scans. The following two commands will merge together the two meshes: target obj000 merge obj090 The first command says that obj000 is where we wish to merge all other scans into. The second command merges obj090 into obj000. The "merge" command takes some time to execute. It will first eat away at the edges of the two meshes until they just touch. It will then "zipper" together the two meshes into a single surface. Read the article referenced earlier for details of the merge algorithm.

We can now write out our new, zippered mesh into a file:

bpwrite obj000 zippered_object This command writes our zippered mesh into the PLY polygon file called "zippered_object.ply". We can read in the file again (either in this session or when we re-start the program) by typing: bpoly zippered_object The above steps cover many of the basics of using zipper. We started the program, read in two range images, aligned them, merged the two meshes into a single polygon mesh, and finally wrote this mesh to a file.

An Advanced Example

Assume now that we wish to take several scans of a clay cat model and assemble them into a single polygon mesh. In this example, we will make use of a rotational (cylindrical) range scan, as well as several linear scans. We will use the cylindrical scan as a sort of anchor on which to align the other scans, but the rotational scan will NOT contribute to the final polygons of the model. Our rotational scan is a Cyberware file called "cat_rot". Four linear scans, taken from the four compass points, are called "cat000.ply", "cat090.ply", "cat180.ply" and "cat270.ply". In addition, we have one more scan, called "cat_top.ply" that was taken of the top of the cat model after we picked up the model and laid it on its side.

Advanced Example: Alignment

We begin by placing the following commands in the file "cat.conf": mesh cat_rot bmesh cat000 0 bmesh cat090 90 bmesh cat180 180 bmesh cat270 270 bmesh cat_top Now we start zipper as follows: zipper -c cat This reads in the file "cat.conf" and executes the commands that read in the six scans. Notice that the first command is "mesh", not "bmesh". This is because we used a Cyberware range file to store the rotational scan, and not a PLY range file. PLY range files are usually preferable because the range data has not been re-sampled onto a regular grid, where Cyberware scans have been re-sampled. This re-sampling process can create points mid-way between two surfaces, and such points can actually be very far away from the true surface. In our example, however, we will only be using the "cat_rot" range image for alignment, so the re-sampled depth values will not be an issue.

The second through fifth command reads in the four PLY range scans that were taken from the four compass points. The angle in degrees at the end of each line specifies how they are to be rotated about the y-axis. This should roughly position them around the rotational scan. The final command reads in the "cat_top.ply" scan. Note that we don't even bother trying to position this scan correctly.

Now we are ready to begin alignment. We type these commands:

anchor cat_rot align cat000 If this first alignment invocation doesn't do the trick, we type "!!" to re-invoke the last command. Eventually we are satisfied with the alignment of cat000 to cat_rot, and we can align the other scans: align cat090 align cat180 align cat270 We may have to repeat several of these commands to get full alignment. If we wished, we could have created a text file called "cat.align" with all of these commands: anchor cat_rot align cat000 align cat090 align cat180 align cat270 Then we can execute all of them by typing "source cat.align". This is the way to align objects "off-line".

Finally, we want to align the top of the cat. Go to the Selection Window and click on the blank diamond to the far right of the line that reads "cat_top". The diamond should turn green, and this means that mouse dragging in the Object Window will move the scan called "cat_top". The buttons have the following actions:

Left - translate left/right and up/down Middle - rotate (a virtual trackball) Right - translate forward/back These same three actions also apply when you are in "world" mode. Clicking on the diamond to the right of the "World" button in the Selection Window put us in world mode. Then dragging the mouse in the Object Window moves ALL of the scans, not just one. Go back and re-select "cat_top", and use the mouse to drag it into rough alignment with all of the other scans. Once it is crudely aligned, invoke the automatic alignment by typing: align cat_top We will probably have to invoke this several times because our hand alignment wasn't very precise to begin with.

Up until this point, we have been working (by default) at the lowest sampling rate of the range scans. You may have noticed that the meshes for the different range scans are very simple. The four buttons at the far right of the Button Window, labeled "Mesh 1" through "Mesh 4", guide the resolution of the meshes that we work with. By default, the program starts by using the crudest mesh level, Mesh 4. This means that the polygon meshes displayed in the Object Window are created by using every 8th sample point (both horizontally and vertically) from their respective range images. Mesh 3 uses every 4th point, Mesh 2 uses every other point, and Mesh 1 uses all the range points. Let us switch to a slightly higher mesh level by pressing the "Mesh 3" button. After a short time, each of the displayed meshes now have slightly more detail. We need to align these meshes at the new detail level, since we have more geometry with which to align:

align cat000 align cat090 align cat180 align cat270 align cat_top In practice, most users align a single scan at a time at each of the different mesh levels up to the one they want as final output. The way to do this is: mesh_resolution 4 (the command-line form of pressing "Mesh 4") align cat000 ... (possible repetition of alignment command) mesh_resolution 3 align cat000 ... mesh_resolution 2 align cat000 ... mesh_resolution 1 align cat000 ... In the following example, we will press the "Mesh 3" button and carry out all the operations at mesh level 3.

To speed up the alignment process some, we can type the following command:

fast_ops on This will cause the align command (and the merge command, too) to only display the final position of the meshes. Drawing the intermediate positions during alignment takes a little bit of time. We can turn this drawing back on by: fast_ops off At any point in the alignment process, we may wish to save the current posisions of all the scans. We can see the positions by typing: print This prints all the positions of the scans, as well as the camera position. A position of a scan is seven numbers, the first three are translation and the last four are quaternion rotation. We can save this information to a file by typing: print cat This will save the current positions of all scans in the file "cat.conf". We can re-start the zipper program with these new positions (should we have a need to quit and re-start) by: zipper -c cat There is another reason to save away the current positions of the meshes-- a reason that will come into play later.

Advanced Example: Merging

Once we have aligned the scans of the cat, we are ready to merge them together into a single polygon mesh. We will do so by successively merging each of the linear scans into the first such scan, called "cat000". Here are the commands to perform the merge: target cat000 merge cat090 merge cat180 merge cat270 merge cat_top With each merge step, the mesh in "cat000" incorporates the new parts of the model that are contributed by the other scans. By default, the merge operation displays the process of eating away at the mesh boundaries. Notice that all of the above commands may be stored in a text file, and then read in by the "source" command. In this way we can make merging an off-line process, without the need for a user to type the commands and wait for them to execute.

The merging process can be sped up slightly by typing a command before the merge process that tells the program NOT to display all the intermediate forms during mesh eating:

fast_ops on This is the same command we used earlier to speed up the alignment process. The default behavior can be restored by the command: fast_ops off Once all the merge steps are completed, we can save the final mesh to a file called "cat_zippered.ply" by the command: bpwrite cat000 cat_zippered It is worth noting that we could have used the rotational mesh ("cat_rot") in the above zippering example but that it is usually not a good idea. Rotational range scans often have "poles", or places where a very large number of triangles are squeezed into a small part of 3-space. Usually the triangles near the pole will also be long and thin, probably not the best shape for triangles in our final mesh. Finally, at least in its current implementation, the zipper program only reads rotational scans from Cyberware range files (using the "mesh" command) and not from PLY range files. The problem here is that by the time the depth information has been placed in a Cyberware range file, the depth values have been re-sampled on a different grid. This re-sampling can cause spurious range points to be created.

Advanced Example: Consensus Geometry

After merging, there is one final step that can be performed that usually results in slightly higher quality meshes. This operation is known as "consensus geometry", and you can find out technical details about it by reading the zippering article. The basic idea is to alter the zippered mesh by moving each mesh vertex to an average position of nearby range points taken from the original mesh data. This means that the final mesh positions will not be taken from one range scan each, but rather will be a "consensus" average from all of the currently loaded scans. This usually smooths out some of the noise on the surface, and can make smaller any noticable rough spots of the mesh where zippering occured.

To compute the consensus geometry, we must have the zippered mesh read into the program, and must furthermore have all the original range images that contributed to the zippered mesh. We need to position these meshes in exactly the same way they were situated during the merge step. We can do this by using the seven number description of their position that we saved when we executed the command "print cat". We can simply copy the "cat.conf" file resulting from this command and modify it to produce the consensus geometry. In this way the consensus step can be an entirely off-line process, just as we can do with the merging process. Here are the commands to compute consensus geometry:

bpoly cat_zippered bmesh cat000 <position-parameters> bmesh cat090 <position-parameters> bmesh cat180 <position-parameters> bmesh cat270 <position-parameters> bmesh cat_top <position-parameters> consensus cat_zippered 3 The above "consensus" command takes a while to execute. What is specified in the command is the name of the mesh to be operated on, "cat_zippered", and the mesh level of that mesh, which in our case is level 3. As one might expect, the consensus step would take a good deal longer to execute if we were using mesh level 1, the most detailed level.

After the consensus step is complete, we can save the final mesh by the command:

bpwrite cat_zippered cat_final This saves the mesh currently called "cat_zippered" into the PLY polygon file called "cat_final.ply".

Note that when we perform consensus geometry, we want to make sure that all the range scans that contributed to the zippered mesh are loaded and in the same position as when they were used. Meshes that are not loaded will not contribute to the average position that consensus geometry computes. By the same token, be sure NOT to have range scans loaded during consensus geometry that never contributed to the zippered mesh.

We are now done with the advanced zippering example.

The Selection Window

The Selection Window is used to specify which objects are to be drawn in the Object Window and to say what mouse actions have what effect. The last two lines in the Selection Window are always the same: light whole object Each of these lines has a diamond to their right. Clicking in the "whole object" diamond says that mouse dragging in the Object Window will move all of the objects together. The mouse buttons are used as follows: Left - translate left/right and up/down Middle - rotate (a virtual trackball) Right - translate forward/back Clicking on the "light" diamond means that the left mouse button drags around the virtual light that determines the shading of the objects. Finally, you may click on the diamond that is to the far right of any of the named meshes that the program currently has in memory. Then the three buttons carry out the same movements as in "whole object" mode except that only the one mesh is moved. We did this in the advanced example to crudely align the cat_top mesh to the others. Notice that only one of the diamonds may be lit at any one time.

There is a square button to the right of each named mesh that is displayed in the Selection Window. If the button is lit (purple) then the corresponding object will be drawn in the Object Window. If the button is not lit (window background color), then that object will not be drawn. Any combination of square buttons may be lit or unlit, so that any combinations of object may be drawn together. It is often useful to turn off the display of meshes that are not currently being operated upon during, for instance, an alignment operation.

The Button Window

The Button Window contains a number of buttons that control how the meshes appear. The five buttons on the far left are as follows: Polygons - polygonal vs. line drawing Smooth - smooth vs. faceted shading FalseColor - different colors for each mesh, or white for every mesh TrueColor - color taken from range file (not fully implemented) The five buttons in the next column do the following: Confidence - color of mesh measures confidence of that depth position Normals - show surface normals as vectors Bounds - highlight the edges on the boundary of the meshes Refine - use low resolution mesh when displaying? "Confidence" is a measure of how sure we are that a given position on the mesh is an accurate depth. Confidence is shown as color on a mesh, with red meaning high confidence and blue as low confidence.

The "refine" button says whether or not to swap to a low-resolution model (Mesh 4) when moving objects around. It has no effect if the lowest resolution mesh is the one currently selected.

Next we come to the Match buttons. They do the following:

Edit - bring up the polygon editing window Undo - undo movement of a mesh (either from mouse motion or alignment) Redo - redo an undo We will discuss polygon editing later. The "undo" and "redo" buttons are for undo/redo of any motion of meshes, whether the motion was from mouse movements or from an alignment process.

The next column of buttons are primarily for giving demonstrations. Three of the buttons act ONLY upon the first two meshes listed in the Selection Window. The are (currently) not useful in general.

Align - alignment of meshes by rotation and translation (demos only) StopAlign - stop the alignment Eat Edges - eat away at overlapping parts of two meshes (demos only) Merge - merge two meshes that just overlap (demos only) The "StopAlign" button is useful whenever we wish to stop the alignment process prematurely. Pressing this button will stop after the current alignment iteration.

Polygon Editing

Pressing the "Edit" button in the Button Window brings up a small window devoted entirely to making small changes to the geometry of a mesh. The editing window can be closed by pressing on the "Edit" button again, or by pressing on the "Dismiss" button at the bottom of the edit window.

The edit window has seven radio buttons that let you be in one of seven editing modes. These modes are:

Null Mode Delete Triangle Delete Vertex Fill Hole Fill Better Make Triangle Delete Box When in Null Mode the mouse buttons work as they always do: rotating and translating the on-screen object. When one of the six other modes are selected, the left mouse button is used to pick an element on the model. Picked objects are lit up in green. Once an appropriate object is selected, pressing either the middle mouse button or the "Execute Edit" button will attempt to execute the current editing function. Below are descriptions of each of these other modes:
Delete Triangle: When the cursor is positioned over a polygon, pressing the left mouse button will highlight the polygon in green. When the middle mouse button is pressed, this polygon will be deleted. Delete Vertex: When the left mouse button is pressed DIRECTLY over a vertex of the model, a small green circle will appear on top of the vertex. When the middle mouse button is pressed, this vertex is removed from the model and the surrounding polygons are adjusted to keep the surface connected in this area. A vertex cannot be removed if it is on the boundary of the mesh. Fill Hole: The boundary of a hole in the mesh will be highlighted when the left mouse button is pressed directly on the edge of a mesh hole. When the middle mouse button is pressed, the program attempts to pave over the hole with triangles by connecting the vertices that surround the hole. Fill Better: This is a different way to fill in a hole in the mesh. It operates just as does the other hole filling operation, except that new vertices will be introduced into he mesh in a way that attempts to preserve the natural triangle size of the mesh. It is better to use this version of hole filling for larger holes. Make Triangle: Three vertices must be selected by clicking on the with the left mouse button. Once three vertices are selected, pressing the "Make Triangle" button will try to make a triangle with the three vertices. The program requires that at least two of these vertices already be shared by some other triangle so that it knows how to orient the new triangle. In some cases, no triangle will be created because there is contradictory orientation information. Delete Box: This is for deleting a large number of vertices and their associated triangles. The mouse is used to create a box, inside of which all the vertices will be deleted. Click and hold down the left mouse button at the upper left corner of the box, drag the mouse to the lower right of the desired region, and then release the button. Pressing the middle mouse button will now cause all the vertices inside the box to be deleted. Be careful about accidentally deleting polygons that are not visible because they are facing away from the viewer. You can avoid this by turning off polygon drawing (so edges are drawn instead) and by turning off backface rejection by the command "cull off". This makes all edges in the model visible, whether the corresponding triangles are front-facing or not.

Parallel Execution

Some high-end SGI's contain more than one processor. Zipper can make use of more than one processor during alignment and during the part of merging that eats away at mesh edges. If the SGI we are running on contains four processors, we can make use of them by the command: parallel_max 4 This says that zipper will spawn off four processes during alignment operations and during edge eating. Although this usually speeds up those operations considerably, there are cases where asking to use all the processors will actually slow the operations down. This will be the case when one or more CPU intensive jobs are running on the same machine. In such a case it is a good idea to see how many CPU intensive jobs are active by using the program "gr_osview". Say that two of the CPU's are already getting heavy use on our four processor machine. We would use the two remaining processors by typing the following command: parallel_max 2 This means we will not be caught in the trap of waiting for one or more of the very sluggish processors to finish a task.

List of Commands

Below is a list of commands that can be typed in at the zipper prompt. They are arranged very roughly by theme. quit - quit the program help or ? - print help about commands help <word> - print any help line that contains a given word anchor <mesh> - specify the anchor mesh for alignment align <mesh> - align a mesh with the current anchor mesh target <mesh> - specify the target mesh to merge into merge <mesh> - merge a mesh into the target mesh eat_edges <mesh> - eat away edges of one mesh (first part of merge) only_merge <mesh> - perform zippering only (second part of merge) consensus <mesh> <res> - compute consensus geometry at a given resolution fast_ops <off/on> - use faster operations? (doesn't draw much) parallel_max <num> - use up to this many processors to do eat & align undo - undo last movement operation redo - redo last undo beep - make a beep sound mesh_resolution <mesh> <res> - set the mesh resolution (1, 2, 3, or 4) remove_mesh <mesh> - remove a mesh from memory bmesh <file> [angle] - read in a binary mesh file mesh <file> [angle] - read in Cyberware mesh file (not used much) bpolygon <file> [angle] - read in a PLY polygon file bpwrite <mesh> <file> - write a mesh to a file color_write <off/on> - flag: write colors to file? intensity_write <off/on> - flag: write intensity to file? normals_write <off/on> - flag: write normals & consensus tags to file? print - print out positions of meshes print <file> - write out positions of meshes to a file mprint - print out matrices of meshes mprint <file> - write out matrices of meshes to a file source <file> - read in lines of a text file and execute them translate <mesh> <x> <y> <z> - translate a mesh xrotate <mesh> <angle> - rotate a mesh by some degrees around the x-axis yrotate <mesh> <angle> - rotate a mesh by some degrees around the y-axis zrotate <mesh> <angle> - rotate a mesh by some degrees around the z-axis speed <num> - speed of object motion due to mouse (default = 1) cull <off/on> - turn off/on backface rejection in line mode (default is on) reset_view - reset the view position axes <off/on> - turn off or on drawing of axes camera <cam_params> - set the camera position background <r> <g> <b> - set the background color
Last update : August, 1994